Rules of Narration in Bangla by Goljar I Narration আর কখনো ভূল হবেনা - জীবন গড়ি প্রযুক্তির সুরে ♫

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Rules of Narration in Bangla by Goljar I Narration আর কখনো ভূল হবেনা

Rules of Narration in Bangla by Goljar I Narration আর কখনো ভূল হবেনা

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Narration ইংরেজি ব্যাকরণের একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ অধ্যায়। ইংরেজি ভাষায় দক্ষতা অর্জনের জন্য Narration প্রয়োজনীয়তা রয়েছে। Narration সম্পর্কে Narration Rules in Bangla এর অধ্যায় বিস্তারিত, সহজ ও সম্পর্ণ আলোচনা করা হলো। Narration কে সম্পর্ণ রূপে জানতে হলে যা যা জানতে হবে।

                            ১। Narration এর সংঙ্গা।

                            ২। Direct speech (প্রত্যক্ষ উক্তি ) ও Indirect speech (পরোক্ষ উক্তি)।

                            ৩। Reporting verb এবং Reporting speech।

                            ৪। Direct speech কে Indirect speech পরিবর্তন করার ব্যতিক্রম নিয়ম সমূহ।

Note: Direct speech কে Indirect speech পরিবর্তন করার সময় Tense, person, sentence, নিকটবর্তী শব্দকে দূরবর্তী শব্দে পরিবর্তন সহ এসকল নানাবিধ পরিবর্তন করতে হয়।

                            ★ Tense এর পরিবর্তন।

                            ★ Person এর পরিবর্তন।

                            ★ নিকটবর্তী শব্দকে দূরবর্তী শব্দে পরিবর্তন।

                            ★ sentence এর পরিবর্তন।

নিম্নে পর্যায়ক্রমে সকল নিয়ম সম্পর্কে আলোচনা করা হলো।

Narration কাকে বলে?

বক্তা বক্তব্যে যা বলে বা প্রকাশ করে তাই Speech বা Narration।

        ⇨Roudrita says, " I am very loyal to my parents." (Direct speech)

        ⇨Roudrita says that she is very loyal to her parents. (Indirect speech)

উপরে দুইটা উদাহরণ থেকে দেখা যায় বক্তার ভাষা দুইভাবে প্রকাশ করা যায় প্রথমটি Direct speech বা প্রত্যক্ষ উক্তি আর দ্বিতীয়টি Indirect speech বা পরোক্ষে উক্তি।

Direct Speech বা প্রত্যক্ষ উক্তি: বক্তার ভাষা সম্পূর্ণ রূপে তার নিজের ভাষায় ব্যক্ত করাকে Direct speech বা প্রত্যক্ষ উক্তি বলা হয়।

            Shohel says, ‘I am going to Dhaka tomorrow’. (Direct speech)

Note: Direct speech বা প্রত্যক্ষ উক্তি কে সবসময় Inverted comma ” ” মধ্যে রাখা হয়।

★Direct speech এ দুইটি অংশ থাকে।

            i)Reporting verb: ব্যক্তি যে ক্রিয়া দিয়ে তার ব্যক্ত শুরু করে তাকে Reporting verb বলে।

                Shohel says, ‘I am going to Dhaka tomorrow’.

এখানে Shohel says বা সোহেল বললো এখানে ‘says বা বলা’ টা হলো Reporting verb.

Note: এখানে মনে রাখা প্রয়োজন Narration কে Direct থেকে Indirect করার সময় Reporting verb অনুযায়ী Reported speech পরিবর্তন হয় যা বিস্তারিত পরে আলোচনা করা হলো।

            ii) Reported speech: Inverted comma এর মধ্যে থাকা ব্যাকটিকে Reported speech বলে।

Shohel says, ‘I am going to Dhaka tomorrow’. এখানে Inverted comma মধ্যে থাকা ‘I am going to Dhaka tomorrow’ হচ্ছে Reported speech.

Indirect speech বা পরোক্ষ উক্তি : বক্তার বক্তব্যের অর্থ মিলে রেখে নিজের মতো করে পরোক্ষভাবে প্রকাশ করাকে Indirect speech বা পরোক্ষে উক্তি বলে।

Shohel says that she is going to Dhaka the next day.

Tense এর পরিবর্তন ও তার নিয়ম:

Direct Narration এ Reporting Verb  Present ও  Future Tense থাকলে Reported Speech কোন Tense-গত পরিবর্তন হয় না তবে, Reporting Verb Past Tense হলে অবশ্যই তা নিচে দেখানো টেবিলের নিয়ম অনুযায়ী Reported Speech পরিবর্তন করতে হয়।


Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
Present Indefinite
Past Indefinite
Present Continuous
Past Continuous
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Indefinite
Past Perfect
Past Continuous
Past perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
অপরিবর্তনীয়
Past Perfect Continuous
অপরিবর্তনীয়

খুব সহজে Tense পরিবর্তনের নিয়ম:

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
V1
V2
V2
had + V3
am/is/are
was/were
was/were
had been
have/has
had
had+V3
had+V3
shall/will
would
can
could
may
might
must
had to or must
should
should have + V3
would
would
could
could
might
might

Person পরিবর্তন করার নিয়ম: 

### Direct Speech হতে Indirect Speech পরিবর্তনের সময়  Reported Speech কোন First Person (Subject/object/possessive) থাকলে তা Reporting Verb এর Subject অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তিত হবে।
### Reported Speech কোন ‍Second Person থাকলে তা Reporting Verb এ থাকা Object অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তিত হবে। 
### Reported Speech এ কোন Third Person থাকলে তার কোনরুপ পরিবর্তন হবে না। তোমাদের সুবিধার্থে নিচের ছকে Subject/object ও Possessive এর বিভিন্ন রুপ দেখানো হলো।

Nominative

Objective

Possessive

1st Person Change

I

Me

My

we

Us

Our

Second Person Change

You

You

Your

Third Person Change

He

Him

His

She

Her

Her

They

Them

Their

It

It

It’s


Reporting verb যদি Past Tense থাকে, তবে Indirect Speech   Direct Speech এর নিকটবর্তী শব্দকে দূরবর্তী শব্দে পরিবর্তন করতে হয়।

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
This
that
These
those
Here
there
Come
go
Ago
before
Now
then
Hence
thence
Hither
thither
Thus
so
Today
that day
Tonight
that night
Tomorrow
the next day/ the following day
Next week/ month/ year.......
the following week/ month/ year...
Last day/ night/ month/ year....
the previous day/ night/ month/ year....
Yesterday
the previous day

👉বাক্যের শ্রেণীবিভাগ অনুযায়ী Narration এর রুপান্তর। There are five types of Narration according to the meaning of the sentence.
                    01. Assertive sentence
                    02. Interrogative sentence
                    03. Imperative sentence
                    04. Operative sentence
                    05. Exclamatory sentence

     Assertive sentence এর Narration change

1. Reporting Verb এর Subject+ said এর পরিবর্তে told+ Reporting verb এর Object+ Inverted comma উঠে গিয়ে Conjunction that বসে+ subject + verb + object+ ext. (Person ও tense পরিবর্তন করতে হয়।)

Direct: The poor man said to me, “I am very hungry.”
Indirect: The poor man told me that he was very hungry.

2. Reporting verb এর পর object না থাকলে said অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।

Direct: My friend said, “I am in danger”
Indirect: My friend said that he was in danger.

Direct: He said, “You did the work.”
Indirect: He said that I had done the work.

👉বাক্যটি চিরন্তন সত্য, অভ্যাসগত সত্য, বৈজ্ঞানিক সত্য হলে Tense এর কোন পরিবর্তন হবে না।
Direct: The teacher said to me, “Honesty is the best policy.”
Indirect: The teacher told me that honesty is the best policy. 

Interrogative Sentence এর Narration Change

1. Reporting verb পরিবর্তন হয়ে asked/enquired of/demand হয়.


2. Reported speech যদি auxiliary verb দ্বারা শুরু হয় তাহলে inverted comma (“ ”) উঠে if/whether বসে.


3. Reported speech Wh-word দ্বারা শুরু হয় তাহলে inverted comma (“ ”) উঠে wh-word ই বসে.Sentence টি interrogative এর পরিবর্তে assertive sentence এ রূপান্তরিত হয়.
Direct: He told me, “Will you help my dad?”
Indirect: He asked me if I would help his dad.

Direct: He told me, “When will you help my dad?”
Indirect: He asked me when I would help his dad.

4. Interrogative sentence কে direct থেকে Indirect করার সময় যা যা করনীয়ঃ

5. Reporting speech এর Sub+ asked+ reporting speech এর Obj+ Wh/If+ Sub+ verb+ obj + ext (Person ও tense পরিবর্তন করতে হয়।Subject এর আগে do/ does/did থাকলে তা উঠে যায়।)
Direct: The teacher said to me, “Have you completed your homework?”
Indirect: The teacher asked me if I had completed my homework.
 
Direct: He said to me, “Did you go there?”
Indirect: He asked me if I had gone there.
 
Direct: My father said to me, “what do you want?’
Indirect: My father asked me what I wanted.

Imperative sentence এর Narration Change

Reported Speech

Reporting Verb

আদেশ/নির্দেশ

Ordered

নিষেধ

For bade/ordered

উপদেশ

advised

অনুরোধ

requested

প্রস্তাব

Proposed to

সামরিকআদেশ

commanded

অন্যান

told/said/suggested


1. Do not থাকলে inverted comma (“ ”) উঠে গিয়ে Not to বসে।
2. Let দ্বারা Reported Speech দ্বারা শুরু হলে inverted comma(“ ”) উঠে গিয়ে that বসে। 
3. V1/Be/never/please/kindly/always দ্বারা reported speech শুরু হলে inverted comma (“ ”) উঠে গিয়ে to বসে।
 
Direct: He told me, “Help me.”
Indirect: He requested me to help him.

Direct: He told me, “Do not do this.”
Indirect: He ordered me not to do that.
Or He forbade me to do that.

4. Reporting speech এর Sub+ ordered/ advised/ requested/ forbade (কিছু না বুঝলে told ব্যবহার করা যাবে।) + Reporting speech এর Obj+ to/not to+ মূল verb থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত। (Person পরিবর্তন করতে হয়। Please দ্বারা শুরু হলে Please উঠে যাবে।)

Direct: Father said to me, “Memorize it now.”
Indirect: Father ordered me to memorize it then.

Direct: The teacher said to the student, “Always speak the truth.”
Indirect: The teacher advised the student to always speak the truth.

Direct: He said to me, “Please, do it now.”
Indirect: He requested me to do it then.

Direct: Mother said to me, “Don`t run in the sun.”
Indirect: Mother forbade me to run in the sun.
Or,
Indirect: Mother told me not to run in the sun.

5. Imperative sentence টি Let us/ let’s দ্বারা শুরু হলে নিম্নের নিয়মে করতে হবে: R.V এর Sub+ proposed to/ suggested to + R.V এর Obj+that+Sub+should +মূল verb এর present form + object + ext. (subject হিসেবে we/they/ you হবে।)

Direct: Matt said to me, “Let us go out for a walk.”
Indirect: Matt proposed to me that we should go out for a walk.

কিন্তু, Let এর পর us না থেকে অন্যকিছু যেমন- Let me/ him/ her/ them/ you..... থাকলে নিম্নের নিয়মে করতে হবে:

6. Reporting speech এর Sub+ told+ Reporting speech এর Obj+ that+ Sub + might/ might be allowed to + মূল verb এর present form + obj+ ext.

7. Let যুক্ত sentence কে direct থেকে indirect করার সময় যা যা করনীয়:

Direct: Matt said to me, “Let me learn English.”
Indirect: Matt told me that he might learn English.


Direct: He said to me, “May I come in?”
Indirect: He told me that he might be allowed to go in.

Optative sentence

Reported Speech
Reporting Verb
Allah/God/ Lord
Prayed
শুভেচ্ছা /সুপ্রভাত

wished
শুভরাত্রি / বিদায়
 
bade

1. May/ Long live দ্বারা Reported speech শুরু হলে inverted comma (“ ”) উঠে গিয়ে that বসে। কিন্তু Reporting Speech এর object বসে না.

2. Direct Wish দ্বারা Reported speech শুরু হলে Reporting verb এরপর object বসে । কিন্তু inverted comma (“ ”) পরিবর্তে that বসে না।

Direct: He told me, “May Allah bless you.”
Indirect: He prayed that Allah might bless me.

 Direct: He told me, “Good morning.”
Indirect: He wished me good morning.


3. Reporting speech এর Sub+ wished/ prayed+ that+ Sub + might+মূল verb+ obj+ ext. (Object বসাতে হলে তার পূর্বে to/ for বসাতে হবে । নতুবা object তুলে দিতে হয়। Long দ্বারা বাক্য শুরু হলে long বাক্যের শেষে বসে।)


Direct: Teacher said to me, “May God save you.”
Indirect: The teacher wished that God might save me.


Direct: He said, “Long live our president.”
Indirect: He wished that their president might live long.

Exclamatory sentenceG এর Narration Change


       Reported Speech
               Reporting verb
সুখ
Exclaimed with joy
দুঃখ
Exclaimed with grief/sorrow
বিস্ময়
Exclaimed with wonder/surprise
ঘৃণা
Exclaimed with abhorrence
অনন্য
Exclaimed/cried out

1. Wh-word ও অন্যান্য word দ্বারা Reported speech শুরু হলে inverted comma(“ ”) উঠে গিয়ে that বসে। কিন্ত Reporting speech এর Object বসে না।

Direct: He told me, “Alas! I have failed again.’’
Indirect: He exclaimed with sorrow that he had failed again.

Direct: They said, “Hurrah! We won the match.’’
Indirect: They exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.


2. Reporting speech এর Sub+ exclaimed with joy/wonder/sorrow/grief (কিছুই বুঝা না গেলে শুধুমাত্র exclaimed লেখা যাবে) +conjunction that+ Subject+ verb+ object + ext. (Person ও tense পরিবর্তন করতে হয় sentence টি what/how দ্বারা শুরু হলে ইহার পরিবর্তে noun এর পূর্বে great এবং Adjective এ পূর্বে very বসে।)

Direct: He said, “What a nice bird it is!”
Indirect: He exclaimed with joy that it was a very nice bird.

Direct: He said, “Alas! I am undone.”
Indirect: He exclaimed with sorrow that he was very undone.

Rules of Passage Narration

01. প্রথমে সমস্ত Passage টি ভালো ভাবে পড়তে হবে। কে কথা বলছে ও কে কথা শুনছে তা খুজে বের করতে হবে। একই বক্তা একসাথে কয়টা কথা বলল এবং সেগুলো কোন Sentence এ আছে তা নির্ধারণ করতে হবে।


02. একই বক্তা পর পর কয়েকটি কথা বললে এবং সেগুলো Assertive sentence হলে প্রথমবার said/ told এবং এরপর প্রতিটি sentence এর জন্য পর্যায়ক্রমে-added that/ also added that/ again added that/ further added that বসে।


Direct: Matt said, “I went to market. I bought some vegetables. I met with my cousin.”
Indirect: Matt said that he had gone to market. He added that he had bought some vegetables. He also added that he had met with his cousin.

03. একই বক্তা পর পর কয়েকটি কথা বললে এবং সেগুলো Interrogative Sentence হলে পর পর প্রতিটি Sentence এর জন্য পর্যায়ক্রমে- asked/ also asked/ again asked/ further asked বসে।

Direct: Matt said to me, “Where did you go yesterday? Have you finished reading the book? When will you return my book?”

Indirect: Matt asked me where I had gone the previous day. He also asked if I had finished reading the book. He again asked when I would return his book.

04. Interrogative Sentence এর প্রশ্নের জবাবে Yes/ No থাকলে Yes এর পরিবর্তে Replied in the affirmative বসে এবং No এর পরিবর্তে Replied in the negative বসে।

→নিয়ম- Reporting speech এর Subject + replied in the affirmative/ negative.

→কিন্তু, Yes/ No এরপর অতিরিক্ত বক্তব্য থাকলে replied in the affirmative/ negative এরপর and said that লিখে বাকিটা শেষ করতে হয়।
Direct: Matt said, “Yes, I have done it.”
Indirect: Matt replied in the affirmative and said that he had done it.

05. Sir এর পরিবর্তে Respectfully/ Politely বসে। Yes, sir /No, sir থাকলে আগে Sir এর কাজ করতে হয়। যেমন-

Direct: The student said, “Yes, sir, I will complete my lesson.”
Indirect: The student respectfully replied in the affirmative and said that he would complete his lesson.

06. Reported speech –এ ‘Good-bye/ Good night থাকলে indirect করার সময়
Reporting speech এর Subject + bade + R.V. এর object + good-bye.

Direct: He said to me, “Good-bye”
Indirect: He bade me good-bye.


07. Reported speech এ ‘Thank you’ থাকলে- Indirect করার সময় Reporting Speech এর Subject + thanked + reporting speech এর object.


Direct: The stranger said, “Thank you.”
Indirect: The stranger thanked me.

08. Reported speech-এ ‘good morning, good evening, good afternoon etc.’ থাকলে indirect করার সময় Reporting speech এর Subject + wished + reporting speech এর object + good morning/ /good evening/ good afternoon.

Direct: Matt said his friend, “Good morning.”
Indirect: Matt wished his friend good morning.

09.Vocative case এর ক্ষেত্রে- Addressing as +যা বলল+যে বলল+সাধারন নিয়ম।

Direct: Shaven said, “Darling, please give me a glass of water.”
Indirect: Addressing as darling Shaven requested to give him a glass of water.

10. Reported speech - এ ‘By Allah, By Jove, by my life, by my love’ থাকলে Indirectকরার সময় swearing by +যা বলল+ সাধারন নিয়ম।

Direct: Matt said to Erica, “By Allah, I will not forget you.”
Indirect: Swearing by Allah, Matt told Erica that he would not forget her.

11. Interrogative sentence এর উত্তর direct speech এ সংক্ষেপে থাকলেও indirect speech এ পূর্ণ sentence এ লিখতে হয়।

Direct: He said to me, “What are you writing?” I said, “A letter.”
Indirect: He asked me what I was writing. I replied that I was writing a letter.

12. Inverted Comma এর মধ্যে well, you see থাকলে Indirect Speech এদের বাদ দেয়া হয় ।

Direct: The teacher said, “Well Rana, I shall reward you.”
Indirect: The teacher said to Rana that he would reward him.

13. Direct speech এর শুরুতে so, but থাকলে । so এর পরিবর্তে that is why. এবং but এর পরিবর্তে Express dissatisfaction বসে।

Direct: Matt said to me, “I am weak. So I will not go to the meeting.”
Indirect: Matt told me that he was weak that is why he would not go to the meeting.

14. Reporting Speech এর সাথে অতিরিক্ত অংশ হিসেবে Present Participle Phrase থাকলে Indirect speech এ তা Reporting Speech এর শুরুতেই ব্যবহৃত হবে। কিন্তু Present Participle Phrase ছাড়া অন্য কোন phrase থাকলে তা অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে। অর্থাৎ জায়গার কোন পরিবর্তন হবে না।
Direct: “Are you brothers?” asked the mistress of the house turning to the dervishes.( Present participle phrase)
Indirect: Turning to the dervishes the mistress of the house asked if they were brothers.

Direct: “Why do you beg?” asked the mistress of the house situated beside the Buriganga. ( Past participle phrase)
Indirect: The mistress of the house situated beside the Buriganga, asked why they begged.


15. Ok এর পরিবর্তে Subject+ agreed that.....বসে।


Direct: John said to me, "Ok, I am going there now."
Indirect: John agreed with me and said that he was going there then.

16. Hello/hi এর পরিবর্তে Subject+ greeted that...বসে।

Direct: Eva said to her, "Hello, how are you?"
Indirect: Eva greeted her and asked how she was.

17. Replied/asked/cried/uttered/muttered-------No change.

Direct: She uttered silently, "No one is here now."
Indirect: She uttered silently that no one was there then.

Passage Narration Exercise

1. Change the narrative style of the following text.
“Where is my son?" said the grocer. “A crow carried your son away," said the fruit-seller. “You liar. How can a crow carry away such a big boy?" “Just the same way as mice can eat away the balance and weights."


Answer: The grocer asked the fruit-seller where his (g) son was. The fruit-seller replied that a crow had carried his g) son away. Exclaiming with violent anger, the grocer called him a liar. He (g) asked him (f) how a crow could carry away such a big boy. The fruit-seller replied that it had carried away just the same way as mice could eat away the balance and weights.

2. Change the narrative style of the following text.
“Can I have a look at your paper for a moment." asked the man next to me. “I just want to see the cricket results." “I haven't quite finished with it," I said. “Could you wait a moment?" “No, I can't wait long, he said, I am getting off at the next stop."

Answer: The man next to me asked me if he could have a look at my paper for a moment and said that he just wanted to see the cricket results. I replied that I hadn't quite finished with it and asked him if he could wait a moment. He replied that he could not wait long since he was getting off at the next stop.

3. Change the narrative style of the following text.
The old man said, “Can you give me some food. I've been starving for two days." The maid said, “Why do you beg? Can't you work?" “No, I am unable to work." said the old man.

Answer: The old man asked the maid if she could give him some food. He added that he had been starving for two days. Then the maid asked the old man why he begged. She also asked him if he couldn't work. The old man replied in the negative and said that he was unable to work.

4. Change the narrative style of the following text.
‘What do you want?’ asked she. Peter answered. ‘I only want to come in. I am very tired. Please, let me come inside. Afterwards, I will go away.’

Answer: She asked Alfred what he wanted. Peter answered that he only wanted to go in. He added he was very tired. He requested that he might be allowed to go inside and afterwards, he would go away.

5. Change the narrative style of the following text.
“Why didn’t you obey my orders?” said the officer to the peon. “Leave my service at once and do not come here again.”

Answer: The Officer asked the peon why he had not obeyed his orders. He ordered him to leave his service at once and forbade him to come there again.

6. Change the narrative style of the following text.
She said to her friend,” How pleasant weather it is! I like going out for a walk very much. Let us go out for a long drive. Please take your sister too along with and we all shall enjoy ourselves there very much.”

Answer: She exclaimed that it was very pleasant weather and told her friend that she liked going out for a walk very much. She proposed to her friend that they should go out for a long drive. She further requested her friend to take her sister too along with and told that they all would enjoy themselves there very much.

7. Change the narrative style of the following text.
The host said to the guest,” Please come in and have a seat. What brings you here? What can I do for you? Will you like to have a cup of coffee? ”

Answer: The host requested the guest to come in and have a seat. He asked him what brought him there and what he could do for him. He further asked him if he would like to have a cup of coffee.

8. Change the narrative style of the following text.
The girl said to her father,” Why are you in such a pensive mood today? Please let me know its reason. It will be my pleasure if I can do anything for you. Have you not gone to your office today?

Answer: The father said to her daughter,” No, I am fine. I have not gone to my office because I want to see you. Are you free today?”

9. Change the narrative style of the following text.
The girl asked her father why he was in such a pensive mood that day. She requested him to let her know its reason and told him that it would be her pleasure if she could do anything for him. She asked him if he had not gone to his office that day.

Answer: The father replied in the negative and told her that he was fine and he had not gone to his office because he wanted to see her. He asked her if she was free that day.

2 comments:

Anonymous said...

Best

Anonymous said...

Really best

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